What Are The Types of Mutual Fund Schemes?
There are a wide variety of Mutual Fund schemes that cater to your needs,
whatever your age, financial position, risk tolerance and return expectations.
Whether as the foundation of your investment programme or as a supplement,
Mutual Fund schemes can help you meet your financial goals.
A) By Structure
These do not have a fixed maturity. You deal directly with the Mutual Fund for
your investments and redemptions. The key feature is liquidity. You can
conveniently buy and sell your units at net asset value ("NAV") related prices.
Schemes that have a stipulated maturity period (ranging from 2 to 15 years) are
called close-ended schemes. You can invest directly in the scheme at the time
of the initial issue and thereafter you can buy or sell the units of the scheme
on the stock exchanges where they are listed. The market price at the stock
exchange could vary from the scheme's NAV on account of demand and supply
situation, unitholders' expectations and other market factors. One of the
characteristics of the close-ended schemes is that they are generally traded at
a discount to NAV; but closer to maturity, the discount narrows. Some
close-ended schemes give you an additional option of selling your units
directly to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices.
SEBI Regulations ensure that at least one of the two exit routes are provided
to the investor.
These combine the features of open-ended and close- ended schemes. They may be
traded on the stock exchange or may be open for sale or redemption during
pre-determined intervals at NAV related prices.
(B) By Investment Objective
Aim to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long term. These schemes
normally invest a majority of their funds in equities and are willing to bear
short- term decline in value for possible future appreciation.
These schemes are not for investors seeking regular income or needing their
money back in the short-term. Ideal for:
Investors in their prime earning years.
Investors seeking growth over the long-term
Aim to provide regular and steady income to investors. These schemes generally
invest in fixed income securities such as bonds and corporate debentures.
Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited. Ideal for:
Retired people and others with a need for capital stability and regular income.
Investors who need some income to supplement their earnings.
Aim to provide both growth and income by periodically distributing a part of
the income and capital gains they earn. They invest in both shares and fixed
income securities in the proportion indicated in their offer documents. In a
rising stock market, the NAV of these schemes may not normally keep pace, or
fall equally when the market falls. Ideal for:
*Investors looking for a combination of income and moderate growth.
Money Market Schemes
Aim to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income.
These schemes generally invest in safer, short-term instruments, such as
treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter- bank call
money. Returns on these schemes may fluctuate, depending upon the interest
rates prevailing in the market. Ideal for:
* Corporates and individual investors as a means to park their surplus funds
for short periods or awaiting a more favourable investment alternative.
Tax Saving Schemes
These schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under tax laws as prescribed
from time to time. This is made possible because the Government offers tax
incentives for investment in specified avenues. For example, Equity Linked
Savings Schemes (ELSS) and Pension Schemes. Recent amendments to the Income Tax
Act provide further opportunities to investors to save capital gains by
investing in Mutual Funds. The details of such taxsavings are provided in the
relevant offer documents. Ideal for:
* Investors seeking tax rebates.
This category includes index schemes that attempt to replicate the performance
of a particular index such as the BSE Sensex or the NSE 50, or industry
specific schemes (which invest in specific industries) or sectoral schemes
(which invest exclusively in segments such as 'A' Group shares or initial
public offerings). Index fund schemes are ideal for investors who are satisfied
with a return approximately equal to that of an index. Sectoral fund schemes
are ideal for investors who have already decided to invest in a particular
sector or segment. Keep in mind that any one scheme may not meet all your
requirements for all time. You need to place your money judiciously in
different schemes to be able to get the combination of growth, income and
stability that is right for you. Remember, as always, higher the return you
seek higher the risk you should be prepared to take. A few frequently used
terms are explained here below:
Net Asset Value ("NAV")
Net Asset Value is the market value of the assets of the scheme minus its
liabilities. The per unit NAV is the net asset value of the scheme divided by
the number of units outstanding on the Valuation Date.
Sale Price: Is the price you pay when you invest in a scheme.
Also called Offer Price. It may include a sales load.
Is the price at which a close-ended scheme
repurchases its units and it may include a back-end load. This is also called
Redemption Price: Is the price at which open-ended schemes
repurchase their units and close-ended schemes redeem their units on maturity.
Such prices are NAV related.
Sales Load: Is a charge collected by a scheme when it sells the
units. Also called, 'Front-end' load. Schemes that do not charge a load are
called 'No Load' schemes.
Repurchase or 'Back-end' Load: Is a charge collected by a scheme
when it buys back the units from the unitholders.